Model-based biomechanical dental implant optimization in bone-implant system

Jian-Ping Geng, BDS, MSD, PhD,(a) Wei Xu, PhD,(b) and Wei-Qi Yan, MD, PhD(a)

(a)Clinical Research Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, P. R. China
(b)Centre for Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the important parameters for a model-based design optimization method through comparison of different biomechanical environments and various dental implant models.
Materials and Methods: Finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to model a mandibular bone implant system. Essential parameters, such as, cortical bone properties, boundary conditions, and loading directions, were investigated and altered. The effects of altering these parameters in bone-implant FEA models were evaluated based on differences in stresses.
Results: The results of this study showed that under different oblique loads, cortical bone properties and constraints the differences in the stress level and distribution between the different implant designs could be clearly identified. Key parameters for a model-based design optimization method were identified effectively by using FEA to compare the stress situation in different implant systems with various biomedical environments.
Conclusion: Without knowing which parameters play substantial roles, design optimization of a dental implant system remains a challenge, especially when comparison of different implants are involved and bone quality has to be taken into account. This study shows that an oblique load, excellent cortical bone property, and minimal support constraints are critical parameters affecting the stress distribution in the bone-implant model. Therefore these parameters were important for implant design optimization. (Int Chin J Dent 2007; 7: 15-22.)

Key Words: bone, finite element analysis, implant.