Evaluation using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of metal elements in consumer products

Yue Liu, DDS, Shigeru Nakamura, DDS, Yoshihisa Yamabe, DDS, PhD, and Hiroyuki Fujii, DDS, PhD

Division of Removable Prosthodontics and Management of Oral Function, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan

Purpose: Dental metal allergies usually originate in iatrogenic circumstances, or occupational and household environments. Thus, knowing which metallic elements were contained in known and unknown metal objects is necessary to accurately diagnose and to provide daily life guide for patients with metal allergies. The aim of this study was to identify the metal elements in cosmetic and household products.
Materials and Methods: By energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), 81 cosmetic products and 50 household products were analyzed. Solid samples were analyzed intact. Cream samples and liquid samples were dried to powder or paste before testing with a freeze-dryer. The examination was carried out in vacuum.
Results: Metal elements were detected in 60 out of 81 cosmetic products and in 39 out of 50 household products. The elements above 1,000 cps X-ray intensity in the cosmetic products were K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn, and Bi; in the household products, the elements found were K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn. In the 23 make-up cosmetic products, Fe was detected in all, and Ti and Zn were detected in 20 and 19 products, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that when seeking a metal allergen, dermatologists and dentists must pay particular attention to both known and unknown metal objects.
(Int Chin J Dent 2002; 2: 134-142.)
Clinical Significance: In the differential diagnosis and daily life guide to patients with dental metal allergies, those results should be available.
Key Words: consumer products, daily life guide, dental metal allergy, differential diagnosis, EDXRF.