Real time measurement of stress by electroencephalogram during contentious mouth opening

Ryoko Otsuka, DMD, PhD (1), Yoshiaki Nomura, DDS, PhD (1), Ayako Okada, DDS, PhD (2), Masahide Uraguchi, DDS, PhD (1,3), Hisanori Tadokoro, DDS (4), Tetsuya Nagai, DDS (5), Yoshihito Fujii, DDS (6), Masahiro Miura, DDS (7), Ryo Kawachi, DDS (4), Masashi Yamamoto, BCom (3), Taketoshi Wakana, BIC (8), and Nobuhiro Hanada, DDS, PhD (1)

(1) Department of Translational Research, (2) Department of Operative Dentistry, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, (3) Medical Group Seiwa, Tama, (4) Private Practice, Machida, (5) Private Practice, Tama, (6) Private Practice, Sagamihara, (7) Private Practice, Akishima, and (8) Futek Electronics Co., Ltd., Yokohama, Japan

Purpose: Dental treatment is a stressful event. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of electroencephalography (EEG) for the measurement of stress the stress of the patient’s ongoing dental treatment.

Materials and Methods: Real-time brain activity was measured for five healthy subjects (three males and two females) under contentious opening mouth conditions and compared with the relaxed conditions for 18 minutes. Brain activities were measured under the conditions that subjects were sited on the dental chair in horizontal situation. Electroencephalograph (EEG) were used to measure the five type of brain waves: θ, α1, α2, α3, and β.

Results: In θ wave, α3 wave and β wave, widening gap between opening mouth condition and closing mouth conditions were observed with over the time course. This tendency was confirmed by autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model and mixed effect modeling. All of the coefficients of opening mouths were statistically significant, when closing mouth used as reference. EEG may be useful tool to measure the stress during dental treatment. Stress by sitting on dental chair in horizontal situation was depended on personality traits.

Conclusion: Contentious opening mouth may be stressful; however, the amount of stress may be small. The changes can be seen within 18 min. Prolonged chair time for the dental treatment may not be recommended.
(Asian Pac J Dent 2019; 19: 45-50.)
Key Words: dental treatment, electroencephalograph, stress