Effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface modifications on poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resins

Shigeki Mitsuda, DDS (1), Satoshi Ino, DDS, PhD (1), Tomotaro Nihei, DDS, PhD (2), Yasushi Umeda, BE (3), Mitsuhiro Watanabe, PhD (3), Osamu Takai, PhD (3), and Hideo Honma, PhD (3)

(1) Division of Prosthodontics, Department of Highly Advanced Stomatology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, (2) Division of Clinical Biomaterials, Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka, (3) Materials & Surface Engineering Research Institute, Kanto Gakuin University, Odawara, Japan

Purpose: Several hydrophilic and hydrophobic approaches have been developed to prevent food debris and plaque accumulation on the denture surface. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of developing a high-functioning self-cleaning denture.

Materials and Methods: Denture base resin specimens were divided into the following groups based on the type of surface treatment: control (no treatment); hydrophilic (UV irradiation or tribochemical coating); and hydrophobic (plasma chemical vapor deposition, CVD). Surface analyses were conducted using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Physical strength was evaluated using the three point bending test. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons.

Results: The self-cleaning effects of the hydrophilic treatments were unsatisfactory; alternatively, the hydrophobicity, mechanical properties, and self-cleansing ability of the CVD specimens were significantly high (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Hydrophobic surface modifications effectively improved the water repelling properties of the resin without compromising its mechanical properties.
(Asian Pac J Dent 2019; 19: 1-8.)
Key Words: chemical vapor deposition, denture base, self-cleaning, tribochemical coating, ultraviolet light